Gurmukhi

Gurmukhi (Punjabi: ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ, Punjabi pronunciation: [ɡʊɾmʊkʰi]) is the most common script used for writing the Punjabi language in India. An abugida derived from the Laṇḍā script and ultimately descended from Brahmi, Gurmukhi was standardised by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad, in the 16th century. The whole of the Guru Granth Sahib's 1430 pages are written in this script. The name Gurmukhi is derived from the Old Punjabi term "gurumukhī", meaning "from the mouth of the Guru".

Modern Gurmukhi has forty-one consonants (vianjan), nine vowel symbols (lāga mātrā), two symbols for nasal sounds (bindī and ṭippī), and one symbol which duplicates the sound of any consonant (addak). In addition, four conjuncts are used: three subjoined forms of the consonants Rara, Haha and Vava, and one half-form of Yayya. Use of the conjunct forms of Vava and Yayya is increasingly scarce in modern contexts.

Gurmukhi is primarily used in the Punjab state of India where it is the sole official script for all official and judicial purposes. The script is also widely used in the Indian states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and the national capital of Delhi, with Punjabi being one of the official languages in these states. Gurmukhi has been adapted to write other languages, such as Braj Bhasha, Khariboli (and other Hindustani dialects), Sanskrit and Sindhi.

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